pratyakṣa 和 anumānā 是建立在对现实性的测量之上。除此之外,瑜伽和 Samkhya 哲学也指出了另一种方法,āgamāāgamā 是我们不能通过感觉,感官可以知道的。也不是我们可以通过部分的知道的现实情况,可以推论出来的。有一些现实,我们不得不参考资料与材料。

apta vākya pramāṇa 

apta: dependable 可靠的

vākya: sentences  句

pramāṇa: means of knowledge  知识的手段 


āgamā pramāṇa        是通过有可靠来源的材料获得正确的知识

anumānā pramāṇa    是通过影响而获得知识

pratyakṣa pramāṇa    是通过直接的感觉感官获得知识

有些时候,我们很难直接或者间接的获得知识,我们不得不通过一些可靠的人来获得知识,这种获得知识的方法,可以是简单的,也可以是高深,深厚,深刻的获得方法。比如,一位来旅游的游客,给你介绍在他的国家,某个事情是这样或者那样的,我们可能没有机会直接亲身去他的国家体会,或者受到什么影响而了解到,我们只能通过这位游客的介绍而了解到。这是一位来自这个国家的人,他是个可靠的人,我们可以相信他,我们可以从他的资料里或者知识。这是 āgamā pramāṇa  。

Patanjiali 为什么会讲到这条经文,正是因为,我们不是所有的时候可以直接的感受,或者通过部分的事实来推断,很多时候我们是通过从可靠的人口中,从资料当中获得知识。我们可以看到的事物是有限的,瑜伽或者Samkhya 哲学经常提及那些我们很难看到的事物。

Patanjiali 的这一条经文,是在证明瑜伽或者Samkhya 哲学,经常让我相信或者依存于一些我们一般感官,看不到的事物。一个经典例子就是 purusha 和 drasta。purusha 和 drashta 的存在就不是依存于感觉,是超越感觉的,purusha的现实性是自我揭示,你是证明不了了的,purusha 是自己揭示出来的。是超越感觉的,感觉感官是抓不到的。比如:狗可以听的东西,我们是听不到的,有一些声音是我们听不到,但是狗可以听到的。所以,虽然我们感知不到,但是不代表它就不存在。

同样的drasta 或 purusha,是超越感知范畴的,并不代表它是不存在的,并不是因为有些事物我们不能直接感觉,或者间接证明,它就不存在。并不是有些事物我们看不到,他就是不存在的。这个世界上有成百上千的人,我们都没有见过,并不代表那些人就不存在。所以,有些现实,像 purusha 对于瑜伽或者 samkya 哲学来说是很重要的,samkya 哲学说我们要依赖,信任purusha ,我们要明白,purusha 和 prakriti 的关系,瑜伽哲学还告诉我们,kaivalyam(自由,隔离的) 是当你消除 avidya ( 愚昧,无知),要明白purusha 和 prakriti 的不同点。purusha 就是 āgamā pramāṇa。

在samkya 哲学当中还提到了 zabda pramana,zabda 是 声音,话语的意思,也就是唱诵,有些时候,purusha 是通过唱诵的力量所链接的。有些现实性,有些事实是通过唱诵而被我们所认知的。自我认知的过程,是通过vedic 唱诵,或者通过  mantra japa, 当我们在唱诵的时候,身体的振动会改变,大脑变得安静下来,感知,感觉变得安静下来,会把自己带领到一个,自己很深的地方,在这个地方有一个反应会发生,那就是什么在你的心里,你会看到究竟是什么在自己的心里。 viedic chanting, Mantra japa 是开启自我觉醒,自我智慧,是一个走进自身当中智慧的一个方法,我们可以听到这个智慧的声音,意识到事物的存在。

āgamā pramāṇa 也可以被称为通过意识,领悟而被了解的现实。比如,很多时候,我们犯了一个错误,当别人指出来的时候,我们知道,但是自己意识不到。我们知道这是一个错误,但是我们始终还是意识不到,反反复复的重复犯错,但是在某个时候,在我们的生活当中,你真的自己觉醒过来,才意识到。是自我觉醒,告诉的自己,这个是不对的。不管我们看到什么,不管有什么影响,我们都认识不到,只有自我觉醒之后才能真正意识到。比如,有些人喜欢抽烟,在烟盒的上面明明白白写着,吸烟有害健康,但是人们意识不到,吸烟有害健康,仍然继续抽烟。很多年以后,到医院检查身体的时候,各种检查报告,医生都在告诉他烟草对身体产生的影响。但是他仍然意识不到,但是突然有一天,有些变化在他的自身当中发生,只有自己真正觉醒的之后,自己告诉自己的时候,才会放弃抽烟。

这就是 āgamā pramāṇa ,智慧不总是从外面的世界获得,也可以从自己自身的觉醒当中获得。

Night Poem by William Blake


Diane’s Story Time

The sun descending in the west, 
The evening star does shine; 
The birds are silent in their nest, 
And I must seek for mine. 
The moon, like a flower, 
In heaven’s high bower, 
With silent delight 
Sits and smiles on the night. 

Farewell, green fields and happy groves, 
Where flocks have took delight. 
Where lambs have nibbled, silent moves 
The feet of angels bright; 
Unseen they pour blessing, 
And joy without ceasing, 
On each bud and blossom, 
And each sleeping bosom. 

They look in every thoughtless nest, 
Where birds are covered warm; 
They visit caves of every beast, 
To keep them all from harm. 
If they see any weeping 
That should have been sleeping, 
They pour sleep on their head, 
And sit down by their bed. 

When wolves and tigers howl for prey, 
They pitying stand and weep; 
Seeking to drive their thirst away, 
And keep them from the sheep. 
But if they rush dreadful, 
The angels, most heedful, 
Receive each mild spirit, 
New worlds to inherit. 

And there the lion’s ruddy eyes 
Shall flow with tears of gold, 
And pitying the tender cries, 
And walking round the fold, 
Saying, ‘Wrath, by His meekness, 
And, by His health, sickness 
Is driven away 
From our immortal day. 

‘And now beside thee, bleating lamb, 
I can lie down and sleep; 
Or think on Him who bore thy name, 
Graze after thee and weep. 
For, washed in life’s river, 
My bright mane for ever 
Shall shine like the gold 
As I guard o’er the fold.’

Story 4:The Three Questions

It once occurred to a certain king that if he always knew the right time to begin everything; if he knew who were the right people to listen to, and whom to avoid; and, above all, if he always knew what was the most important thing to do, he would never fail in anything he might undertake.

And this thought having occurred to him, he had it proclaimed throughout his kingdom that he would give a great reward to anyone who would teach him what was the right time for every action, and who were the most necessary people, and how he might know what was the most important thing to do.

And learned men came to the king, but they all answered his questions differently.

In reply to the first question, some said that to know the right time for every action, one must draw up in advance a table of days, months, and years, and must live strictly according to it. Only thus, said they, could everything be done at its proper time. Others declared that it was impossible to decide beforehand the right time for every action, but that, not letting oneself be absorbed in idle pastimes, one should always attend to all that was going on, and then do what was most needful. Others, again, said that however attentive the king might be to what was going on, it was impossible for one man to decide correctly the right time for every action, but that he should have a council of wise men who would help him to fix the proper time for everything.

But then again others said there were some things which could not wait to be laid before a council, but about which one had at once to decide whether to undertake them or not. But in order to decide that, one must know beforehand what was going to happen. It is only magicians who know that; and, therefore, in order to know the right time for every action, one must consult magicians.

Equally various were the answers to the second question. Some said the people the king most needed were his councilors; others, the priests; others, the doctors; while some said the warriors were the most necessary.

To the third question, as to what was the most important occupation, some replied that the most important thing in the world was science. Others said it was skill in warfare; and others, again, that it was religious worship.

All the answers being different, the king agreed with none of them, and gave the reward to none. But still wishing to find the right answers to his questions, he decided to consult a hermit, widely renowned for his wisdom.

The hermit lived in a wood which he never quitted, and he received none but common folk. So the king put on simple clothes and, before reaching the hermit’s cell, dismounted from his horse. Leaving his bodyguard behind, he went on alone.

When the king approached, the hermit was digging the ground in front of his hut. Seeing the king, he greeted him and went on digging. The hermit was frail and weak, and each time he stuck his spade into the ground and turned a little earth, he breathed heavily.

The king went up to him and said: “I have come to you, wise hermit, to ask you to answer three questions: How can I learn to do the right thing at the right time? Who are the people I most need, and to whom should I, therefore, pay more attention than to the rest? And, what affairs are the most important and need my first attention?”

The hermit listened to the king, but answered nothing. He just spat on his hand and recommenced digging.

“You are tired,” said the king, “let me take the spade and work awhile for you.”

“Thanks!” said the hermit, and, giving the spade to the king, he sat down on the ground.

When he had dug two beds, the king stopped and repeated his questions. The hermit again gave no answer, but rose, stretched out his hand for the spade, and said:

“Now rest awhile – and let me work a bit.”

But the king did not give him the spade, and continued to dig. One hour passed, and another. The sun began to sink behind the trees, and the king at last stuck the spade into the ground, and said:

“I came to you, wise man, for an answer to my questions. If you can give me none, tell me so, and I will return home.”

“Here comes someone running,” said the hermit. “Let us see who it is.”

The king turned round and saw a bearded man come running out of the wood. The man held his hands pressed against his stomach, and blood was flowing from under them. When he reached the king, he fell fainting on the ground, moaning feebly. The king and the hermit unfastened the man’s clothing. There was a large wound in his stomach. The king washed it as best he could, and bandaged it with his handkerchief and with a towel the hermit had. But the blood would not stop flowing, and the king again and again removed the bandage soaked with warm blood, and washed and re-bandaged the wound. When at last the blood ceased flowing, the man revived and asked for something to drink. The king brought fresh water and gave it to him. Meanwhile the sun had set, and it had become cool. So the king, with the hermit’s help, carried the wounded man into the hut and laid him on the bed. Lying on the bed, the man closed his eyes and was quiet; but the king was so tired from his walk and from the work he had done that he crouched down on the threshold, and also fell asleep – so soundly that he slept all through the short summer night.

When he awoke in the morning, it was long before he could remember where he was, or who was the strange bearded man lying on the bed and gazing intently at him with shining eyes.

“Forgive me!” said the bearded man in a weak voice, when he saw that the king was awake and was looking at him.

“I do not know you, and have nothing to forgive you for,” said the king.

“You do not know me, but I know you. I am that enemy of yours who swore to revenge himself on you, because you executed his brother and seized his property. I knew you had gone alone to see the hermit, and I resolved to kill you on your way back. But the day passed and you did not return. So I came out from my ambush to find you, and came upon your bodyguard, and they recognized me, and wounded me. I escaped from them, but should have bled to death had you not dressed my wound. I wished to kill you, and you have saved my life. Now, if I live, and if you wish it, I will serve you as your most faithful slave, and will bid my sons do the same. Forgive me!”

The king was very glad to have made peace with his enemy so easily, and to have gained him for a friend, and he not only forgave him, but said he would send his servants and his own physician to attend him, and promised to restore his property.

Having taken leave of the wounded man, the king went out into the porch and looked around for the hermit. Before going away he wished once more to beg an answer to the questions he had put. The hermit was outside, on his knees, sowing seeds in the beds that had been dug the day before.

The king approached him and said, “For the last time, I pray you to answer my questions, wise man.”

“You have already been answered!” said the hermit, still crouching on his thin legs, and looking up at the king, who stood before him.

“How answered? What do you mean?” asked the king.

“Do you not see?” replied the hermit. “If you had not pitied my weakness yesterday, and had not dug these beds for me, but had gone your way, that man would have attacked you, and you would have repented of not having stayed with me. So the most important time was when you were digging the beds; and I was the most important man; and to do me good was your most important business. Afterwards, when that man ran to us, the most important time was when you were attending to him, for if you had not bound up his wounds he would have died without having made peace with you. So he was the most important man, and what you did for him was your most important business. Remember then: there is only one time that is important – now! It is the most important time because it is the only time when we have any power. The most necessary person is the one with whom you are, for no man knows whether he will ever have dealings with anyone else: and the most important affair is to do that person good, because for that purpose alone was man sent into this life.”


pratyakṣānumānāgamāḥ pramāṇāni

pratyakṣa 直接感觉
anumānā 推论
āgamāḥ 经典证言 圣言
pramāṇāni 正确的知识来源

pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smṛtayaḥ

并且,我们知道这五种 cittavṛtti 是痛苦的内容,也是痛苦的解决的方案。vrittayaḥ pañcatayaḥ kliṣṭākliṣṭāḥ,这些是痛苦的内容,也是痛苦的解决的方案,意识可以让你经受痛苦,同时也可以让你获得自由。经过前面几条经文的学习,我们了解到Patanjiali 在一点点的给 cittavṛtti 下定义。

然后,Patanjiali 先教授了什么是pramāṇa,māṇa 这个词是测量的意思,pramāṇa 是正确的测量某事,正确的认识某事。一个正确测量某个状况,情况的标尺,在我们的 cittavṛtti,意识当中,我们有正确认识事物,事情的标尺。在每一个 vedic 传统的 shastra (经典理论),其中的第一件事就是,怎么建立现实,怎么证实 pramāṇa,每一个 shastra 都在说明,我们有我们自己特殊方式来明白现实,证明什么是现实。在瑜伽和Samkhya 学校,有三种建立 pramāṇa 的方法,Patanjiali 说这3种建立 pramāṇa 的方法 是:

pratyakṣa anumānā āgamāḥ

pratyakṣa 这个词来源于 praty + akṣa ,aksa 是眼睛,在这里也指感觉,praty 是在什么面前,比如,我看到了你们每一个人,因为你们就在我的眼前,所以我可以看到你,你们看到我也是一样,因为我就在你的面前,在你的眼前。不止是视线,还有其他的,比如,当我们闻到食物的香味,食物在面前,有嗅觉的能力,不用看,也知道这是什么。嗅觉可以证明这是什么。同样的,听觉,当什么声音在耳朵前面的时候,等等。

pratyakṣa 就是我们看见事物在自己的面前的这种情况,通过感官,直接感觉到事物。直接的知觉,感觉可以证明一个现实。这就是我们正在做什么,现在社会的每一天,我们都在通过这个方法,认识世界,但是这不是唯一的方法,我们还有另一种方法:anumānā。

anumānā 是这个测量的方法是基于依照或者遵循某个事物,anu 是 依照,遵循。你依照某个事物来衡量状况。比如,我们看到烟,根据看到了烟,我们知道肯定是哪里着火了。我们看到了现实的一小部分,用这一小部分证明了更大的现实,就像做好了饭,我们盛一小勺,先尝一尝熟了没有。我们不用把所有的饭都吃了,才知道饭熟了没有。同样的我们去检查身体的时候,只抽一小部分血液做检查,然后通过这一小部分血液的化验,给整个身体的健康情况做一个结论。anumānā 取一部分现实的情况,依据这一部分的现实情况,扩大为整体的情况。这也是正确认识的来源之一。

这两种方法,对于我们来说很好理解,现代科学就是建立在 pratyakṣa 和 anumānā 之上的,这也是为什么科学,一般情况下是建立在测量和实验之上的。pratyakṣa 和 anumānā 是建立在对现实性的测量之上。除此之外,瑜伽和 Samkhya 哲学也指出了另一种方法,āgamā。

āgamā 是我们不能通过感觉,感官可以知道的。下次课分析相关内容。

瑜伽经 1.6

pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smṛtayaḥ

pramāṇa         正确的知识

viparyaya        谬误,错觉

vikalpa            想象,幻想,构思,概念化

nidrā               睡眠

smṛtayaḥ        记忆

pramāṇa 是大脑中,正确衡量事物的活动,

māṇa 是衡量,测量 

pramāṇa 是正确的衡量某事


viparyaya  是相反的,意识同样可以,以对事物错误认知的方式存在。就像有些时候,你看到了一根绳子,却以为是条蛇,然后变得很害怕,在黑暗中,好像是条蛇在蠕动,你认为它是条蛇,其实不是,你不知道那是根绳子。这是 viparyaya。

意识也可以想象,意识可以幻想,想象很多事情。我们创作艺术品,创作音乐,舞蹈…..我们凭借着意识,做了很多美好的事情。同样的,我们这种意识也做了很多悲伤的事情。这是 vikalpa 。意识有想象,幻想,构思的能力。

nidrā  是睡眠,是意识没有活动的状态。意识在睡眠的状态。这里就有这样一个问题,为什么一个意识没有活动的状态,会认为是一个活动状态。同样的,这个问题就像人们在争论,为什么零是一个数字,零也是一个数字,但是零是没有,零是零,没有的时候是零,零没有计数。但是正是因为这样,才给了其他数字价值。同样的,睡眠是一个基础的状态,是与其他意识活动相比较,给了其他意识状态价值的一个基础状态。

smṛtayaḥ 记忆。记忆是意识的一个活动,因为我们的意识有记住事物的能力。你会记住朋友的姓名,记住你住在哪,记住某个语言,记住学到的知识,记住过去的经验。意识有记忆的能力。

所有的这些意识活动,都不是独立存在的,除了nidrā, 睡眠。当你在睡觉的时候,其他的几种意识没有发生。其他的几种意识,有些时候是一起发生的,有些时候其中的一种和另外一种结合在一起发生。

这第6条经文,基本上是在说,所有的意识活动,可以分为5大类,vrittayaḥ pañcatayaḥ。并且,所有的这些意识可以是痛苦的也可以是不痛苦的,这取决于自己怎样与意识和drasta链接,你是在哪个状态下,不是显现出来的物体,事物和物体不是问题所在,这个问题通常在我们自己,当我们与瑜伽在一起的时候,就要担负起这个责任。这也是在瑜伽经的开篇,Patanjiali 就在问你,atha 你准备好了么。由于自己的问题,自己的原因,而责怪某个事物或者是某个物体,责怪别人,特别的容易。但是 Patanjiali 的方法,Patanjiali 的理论在告诉我们,你不能责怪别人,是你自己的责任。

瑜伽经 1.5

我们之前提到过,印度哲学有 6 个Darśana, 是6种看世界的方式,每一种方式的角度和方式都在寻求,或者告诉大家以不同的方式从dukam痛苦中释放出来,patanjiali 在告诉我们,你是否痛苦,取决于你的意识,不是这个事物,不是别人的意识,别人的意识在解放别人从痛苦中出来,而不是你的,你要想从dukam当中走出来,只有自己的意识。就像有半杯水,是看到杯子里面有半杯水,还是看到这个杯子里,差半杯水没有装满,这两种角度都可以,怎么看待,不取决于这半杯水,取决自己的意识。你想要以消极的方式看待事物,就会以消极的方式看待事物,你想要以积极的方式看待事物,就会以积极的方式看待事物,这是自己的选择,不是物体的选择,完全取决于自己,而不是这杯水。

一、kliṣṭā 和 ākliṣṭāḥ

这是 为什么 patanjiali 特别在强调 vrittayaḥ pañcatayaḥ kliṣṭākliṣṭāḥ 意识活动,有五种形式, vrittayaḥ pañcatayaḥ 有五种形式,他在后面的经文给这五种形式下定义,但是更重要的是 kliṣṭā 和 ākliṣṭāḥ (痛苦和不痛苦),

kliṣṭā 伤害,痛苦,你的意识会伤害到你,
ākliṣṭāḥ 不会伤害到你,或者你的意识不会伤害到你,
也就是在说 意识会让你自由

Manus 就是这个原因,对于一个人还说,是和痛苦捆绑在一起,还是享受自由。一个人是在痛苦的挣扎,还是已经获得了自由。这个角度,见证了 Patanjiali 的一个教导,瑜伽的方法,瑜伽的道路是我们要提炼(refine)意识。因为是意识,让你经受痛苦,也是意识可以让你自由。其他的一些理论或者学校 Darśana 指出的是其他的角度和观点,我在指出我的观点与角度,就是不要责怪事物或者是某个物体,不要责怪别人,不要责怪,经历或者经验,因为你现在正在经历的痛苦,只依赖于你的意识。痛苦不依赖于其他人,从痛苦当中解放出来,也只依赖于你自己的意识,没有其他,不是别人的意识。

这就是 Patanjiali 理论的秘诀:

你不可以说,我的guru(老师)会拯救我,Patanjiali 说只有你自己可以拯救自己。你不可以说,我的guru(老师)伤害了我,只有你自己可以伤害到自己。没有人可以伤害到你,没有什么物体或者事物可以伤害到你。同样一个物体,不是每个人看到的都一样,你觉得痛苦的时候,对于别人来说或许是件喜悦的事情。

就像,世界杯比赛,同样一个结果,有些人回经受痛苦,而对于有些人来说就是喜悦的。不是这个结果,不是这个情况,而是这个结果是有些人喜欢的,这个情况是有些人不喜欢的,anukulyam 更喜欢,pratikulyam 不喜欢的,相反的,anukulyam 和 pratikulyam 只取决于意识。喜欢的,对自己口味的在你的意识当中,不喜欢的,不对自己口味的,也在意识当中。不在于外部事物,在于你的意识怎样看待。

就像买房子,有些人会说这个房子不吉利,有些人会觉得这个房子没什么,取决于自己怎样看待。有些人会以积极的角度看待,有些人以消极的角度看待。 Patanjiali 说 kliṣṭākliṣṭāḥ。那些可以伤害到我们的事情,伤害是从这个词 krisha ( 弱点,阴暗)来的,是 krisha 导致我们受到伤害,让我们经受痛苦。所以瑜伽学校的主要目的,就是帮助我们从这个消极的意识状态中走出来,那个消极的意识,那个把事情变得特别消极的意识中移动出来。把消极的意识经过提炼,变成积极的意识,以一个积极的角度看问题。Patanjiali 的理论是在说,意识是内容也是痛苦与苦难的解决方案。因为当你的意识,以一种消极的角度看问题的时候,会让我们经受痛苦。当我们的意识以积极的角度看问题的时候,当我们有一个开阔的意识的时候,我们会从痛苦中被拯救出来,从痛苦中获得自由。



意识可以是ākliṣṭā —— 当意识是为drasta服务的时候。tadā draṣṭuḥ svarūpe ‘vasthānam。因此,没有伤害。当意识聚焦于感觉,感官,意识会变得很脆弱,消极,意识变成 kliṣṭā 的时候,就会变成痛苦的因素。

所以 Patanjiali 的理论,是在解释说明,意识是痛苦的源头,也是痛苦的解决办法,当你以这个角度看问题的时候,你会发现,Patanjiali 的瑜伽经是最早的,想要去了解意识的理论与方法书籍,现代社会很多人认为,心理治疗,心理分析,是首先明白和了解人类意识,可是,当我们深入学习瑜伽经的时候,你会发现Patanjiali 的瑜伽经比这些理论,更加古老。

Patanjiali 的瑜伽理论,Yoga Darśana,不是关于身体的理论,现代社会的很多书籍,关于瑜伽的书籍,大部分都是关于身体运动的书籍,人们会问,哦,你在练习瑜伽,你在练习 asana 练习,有些人认为 asana 练习就是瑜伽。但是,当你更加深入的学习 Patanjiali 的理论的时候,你会发现: